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Showing posts with label internet. Show all posts
Showing posts with label internet. Show all posts
  • The TCP IP Model in Networking

    The TCP IP Model

    The TCP/IP model is, in many ways, very similar to the OSI model. It's a few years older, and serves as the basis for real-world networking. The TCP/IP model consists of four layers: Application, Transport, Internet and Network Interface. Between them, these cover the same range of functions as the seven layers of the OSI Model. The TCP IP Model in Networking

    You would be justified in asking why we bother with the OSI model if it's not actually used for anything in the real-world. The answer to that question is quite simply that the OSI model (due to being less condensed and more rigid than the TCP/IP model) tends to be easier for learning the initial theory of networking.

    The two models match up something like this:

    The processes of encapsulation and de-encapsulation work in exactly the same way with the TCP/IP model as they do with the OSI model. At each layer of the TCP/IP model a header is added during encapsulation, and removed during de-encapsulation.

    Now let's get down to the practical side of things.

    A layered model is great as a visual aid -- it shows us the general process of how data can be encapsulated and sent across a network, but how does it actually happen?

    When we talk about TCP/IP, it's all well and good to think about a table with four layers in it, but we're actually talking about a suite of protocols -- sets of rules that define how an action is to be carried out. TCP/IP takes its name from the two most important of these: the Transmission Control Protocol (which we touched upon earlier in the OSI model) that controls the flow of data between two endpoints, and the Internet Protocol, which controls how packets are addressed and sent. There are many more protocols that make up the TCP/IP suite; we will cover some of these in later tasks. For now though, let's talk about TCP.

    As mentioned earlier, TCP is a connection-based protocol. In other words, before you send any data via TCP, you must first form a stable connection between the two computers. The process of forming this connection is called the three-way handshake.

    When you attempt to make a connection, your computer first sends a special request to the remote server indicating that it wants to initialise a connection. This request contains something called a SYN (short for synchronise) bit, which essentially makes first contact in starting the connection process. The server will then respond with a packet containing the SYN bit, as well as another "acknowledgement" bit, called ACK. Finally, your computer will send a packet that contains the ACK bit by itself, confirming that the connection has been setup successfully. With the three-way handshake successfully completed, data can be reliably transmitted between the two computers. Any data that is lost or corrupted on transmission is re-sent, thus leading to a connection which appears to be lossless.

    (Credit Kieran Smith, Abertay University, TryHackMe)

    We're not going to go into exactly how this works on a step-to-step level -- not in this room at any rate. It is sufficient to know that the three-way handshake must be carried out before a connection can be established using TCP.


    It's important to understand exactly why the TCP/IP and OSI models were originally created. To begin with there was no standardisation -- different manufacturers followed their own methodologies, and consequently systems made by different manufacturers were completely incompatible when it came to networking. The TCP/IP model was introduced by the American DoD in 1982 to provide a standard -- something for all of the different manufacturers to follow. This sorted out the inconsistency problems. Later the OSI model was also introduced by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO); however, it's mainly used as a more comprehensive guide for learning, as the TCP/IP model is still the standard upon which modern networking is based.

    #1 Which model was introduced first, OSI or TCP/IP?

    ans :- TCP/IP

    #2 Which layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of the Transport layer of the OSI model (Full Name)?

    ANs :- transport

    #3 Which layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of the Session layer of the OSI model (Full Name)?

    Ans :- Application

    #4 The Network Interface layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of two layers in the OSI model. These layers are Data Link, and?.. (Full Name)?

    Ans :- Physical

    #5 Which layer of the TCP/IP model handles the functionality of the OSI network layer?

    Ans :- Internet

    #6 What kind of protocol is TCP?

    Ans :- Connection-based

    #7 What is SYN short for?

    Ans:- Synchronise

    #8 What is the second step of the three way handshake?

    Ans :- SYN/ACK

    #9 What is the short name for the "Acknowledgement" segment in the three-way handshake?

    Ans :-  ACK

    I hope you liked this post, then you should not forget to share this post at all.
    Thank you so much :-)

  • TorghostNG - How to anonymize your internet traffic

    So today we will know about the open source tool that helps in keep anonymous, TorghostNG - Make all your internet traffic anonymized with Tor network. This tool is scripted in python language as you can tell -_- you can help us by subscribing to our youtube channel :. Kumar Atul Jaiswal .: before using the too.

    About TorghostNG

    TorghostNG is a tool that make all your internet traffic anonymized through Tor network.

    Rewritten from TorGhost with Python 3.

    TorghostNG was tested on:

    •     Kali Linux
    •     Manjaro
    •     ...
    Privoxy is a non-caching web proxy with advanced filtering capabilities for enhancing privacy, modifying web page data and HTTP headers, controlling access, and removing ads and other obnoxious Internet junk. Privoxy has a flexible configuration and can be customized to suit individual needs and tastes. It has application for both stand-alone systems and multi-user networks.
    TorghostNG - Make all your internet traffic anonymized with Tor network.

    Before you use TorghostNG

    • For the goodness of Tor network, BitTorrent traffic will be blocked by iptables. Although you can bypass it with some tweaks with your torrent client disappointed_relieved. It's difficult to completely block all torrent traffic.
    • For security reason, TorghostNG is gonna disable IPv6 to prevent IPv6 leaks (it happened to me lmao or whatismyip.live). tor network TorghostNG  - How to anonymize your internet traffic

    Installing TorghostNG

    TorghostNG currently supports:
    •     GNU/Linux distros that based on Arch Linux
    •     GNU/Linux distros that based on Debian/Ubuntu
    •     GNU/Linux distros that based on Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, openSUSE
    •     Solus OS
    •     Void Linux
    •     Anh the elder guy: Slackware
    •     (Too much package managers for one day :v) torghostng

    How To Install ?

    1) git clone https://github.com/githacktools/TorghostNG

    2) ls

    cd TorghostNG


    3) sudo python3 install.py

    4) sudo python3 torghostng.py

    5) sudo python3 torghostng.py -s -c -id it



    This was written for educational purpose and pentest only.
    The author will not be responsible for any damage ..!
    The author of this tool is not responsible for any misuse of the information.
    You will not misuse the information to gain unauthorized access.
    This information shall only be used to expand knowledge and not for causing  malicious or damaging attacks. Performing any hacks without written permission is illegal ..!

    All video’s and tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar subjects to anyone using digital information and computers. We believe that it is impossible to defend yourself from hackers without knowing how hacking is done. The tutorials and videos provided on www.hackingtruth.in is only for those who are interested to learn about Ethical Hacking, Security, Penetration Testing and malware analysis. Hacking tutorials is against misuse of the information and we strongly suggest against it. Please regard the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing every time this word is used.

    All tutorials and videos have been made using our own routers, servers, websites and other resources, they do not contain any illegal activity. We do not promote, encourage, support or excite any illegal activity or hacking without written permission in general. We want to raise security awareness and inform our readers on how to prevent themselves from being a victim of hackers. If you plan to use the information for illegal purposes, please leave this website now. We cannot be held responsible for any misuse of the given information.

    - Hacking Truth by Kumar Atul Jaiswal

    Video Tutorial :- 



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