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Showing posts with label internet. Show all posts
Showing posts with label internet. Show all posts
  • How does the internet work?


    How does the internet work?

    The Blog you are reading now traveled thousands of miles from a Google Data Center to reach you.

    Let's learn how the internet works by getting to understand the details of this data's incredible journey.

    The data center which can be thousands of miles away from you has your blog article stored inside it. how does this data reach your mobile phone or a laptop?

    An easy way to achieve this goal would be with use of satellites. From the data center, a signal could be sent to the satellite via an antenna, and then from the satellite a signal could be sent to your mobile phone via another antenna near to you.

    However, this way of transmitting signals is not a good idea. Let's see why The satellite is parked nearly 22,000 miles above the earth's equator, so in order for the data transmission to be successful, the data would have to travel a total distance of 44,000 miles. Such a long distance of travel causes a significant delay in receiving the signal. More specifically it causes huge latency which is unacceptable for most internet applications. so if this video does not reach you via a satellite then how does it actually get to you?



    Well it is done with the help of a complicated network of optical fiber cables, which connect between the data center and your device. Your phone could be connected to the internet via cellular data or any Wi-Fi router, but ultimately at some point your phone will be connected to this network of optical fiber cables We saw at the beginning that the video you are currently watching is stored inside a data center. To be more specific, it is stored in a solid-state device within the data center. This SSD acts as the internal memory of a server. The server is simply a powerful computer whose job is to provide you the video, article or other stored content when you request it. Now the challenge is how to transfer the data stored in the data center specifically to your device via the complex network of optical fiber cables.

    Let's see how this is done. Before proceeding further we should first understand an important concept which is the concept of an IP address. Every device that is connected to the Internet whether it is a server a computer or a mobile phone is identified uniquely by a string of numbers known as an IP address. You can consider the IP address similar to your home address that is the address, that uniquely identifies your home. Any letter sent to you reaches you precisely because of your home address. Similarly in the internet world an IP address acts as a shipping address through which all information reaches its destination. Your internet service provider will decide the IP address of your device and you are able to see what IP address your ISP has given to your mobile phone or laptop. The server in the data center also has an IP address. The server stores a website so you can access any website just by knowing the server's IP address. However, it is difficult for a person to remember so many IP addresses.

    So to solve this problem domain names like kumaratuljaiswal.in, hackingtruth.in, udemy.com, youtube.com, facebook.com etc are used which correspond to IP addresses which are easier for us to remember than the long sequence of numbers Another thing to notice here is that a server has the capability of storing several websites and if the server consists of multiple websites all the websites cannot be accessed with the server's IP address.

    In such cases additional pieces of information, host headers are used to uniquely identify the website. However, for the giant web sites like Facebook.com or YouTube.com the entire data center infrastructure will be dedicated to the storage of the particular website. To access the internet we always use domain names instead of the complex IP address numbers.

    From where does the internet get IP addresses corresponding to our domain name requests. Well, for this purpose the internet uses a huge phone book known as DNS. If you know a person's name, but don't know their telephone number you can simply look it up in a phone book.

    The DNS server provides the same service to the internet. Your internet service provider or other organizations can manage the DNS server. Let's have a recap of the whole operation. You enter the domain name, the browser sends a request to the DNS server to get the corresponding IP address. After getting the IP address, your browser simply forwards the request to the data center, more specifically to the respective server.

    Once the server gets a request to access a particular website the data flow starts. The data is transferred in digital format via optical fiber cables, more specifically in the form of light pulses. These light pulses sometimes have to travel thousands of miles via the optical fiber cable to reach their destination.

    During their journey they often have to go through tough terrains such as hilly areas or under the sea. There are a few global companies who lay and maintain these optical cable networks. These visuals show how the laying of optical fiber cables is done with the help of a ship. A plow is dropped deep into the sea from the ship, and this plow creates a trench on the seabed and to which places the optical fiber cable.

    In fact, this complex optical cable network is the backbone of the Internet. These optical fiber cables carrying the light are stretched across the seabed to your doorstep where they are connected to a router. The router converts these light signals to electrical signals. An Ethernet cable is then used to transmit the electrical signals to your laptop.

    However if you are accessing the Internet using cellular data, from the optical cable the signal has to be sent to a cell tower and from the cell tower the signal reaches your cell phone in the form of electromagnetic waves. Since the Internet is a global network it has become important to have an organization to manage things like IP address assignment, domain name registration etc this is all managed by an institution called ICANN located in the USA. One amazing thing about the internet is its efficiency in transmitting data when compared with cellular and landline communication technologies. This video you are watching from the Google Data Center is sent to you in the form of a huge collection of zeros and ones.

    What makes the data transfer in the internet efficient is the way in which these zeros and ones are chopped up into small chunks known as packets and transmitted. Let's assume these streams of zeros and ones are divided into different packets by the server where each packet consists of six bits.


    Along with the bits of the video each packet also consists of the sequence number and the IP addresses of the server and your phone. With this information the packets are routed towards your phone. It's not necessary that all packets are routed through the same path and each packet independently takes the best route available at that time. Upon reaching your phone the packets are reassembled according to their sequence number. If it is the case that any packets fail to reach your phone and acknowledgement is sent from your phone to resend the lost packets. Now compare this with a postal network with a good infrastructure, but the customers do not follow the basic rules regarding the destination addresses. In this scenario letters won't be able to reach the correct destination.



    Similarly in the internet we use something called protocols for the management of this complex flow of data packets. The protocols set the rules for data packet conversion, attachment of the source and destination addresses to each packet and the rules for routers etc for different applications the protocols used are different. We hope this video has given you a good understanding about how the internet works, more specifically about the amazing journey of data packets from the data center to your mobile phone.



    All tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only and have been made using our own routers, servers, websites and other vulnerable free resources. we do not contain any illegal activity. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar subjects to anyone using digital information and computers. Hacking Truth is against misuse of the information and we strongly suggest against it. Please regard the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing every time this word is used. We do not promote, encourage, support or excite any illegal activity or hacking.

      - Hacking Truth by Kumar Atul Jaiswal

  • The TCP IP Model in Networking

    The TCP IP Model

    The TCP/IP model is, in many ways, very similar to the OSI model. It's a few years older, and serves as the basis for real-world networking. The TCP/IP model consists of four layers: Application, Transport, Internet and Network Interface. Between them, these cover the same range of functions as the seven layers of the OSI Model. The TCP IP Model in Networking

    You would be justified in asking why we bother with the OSI model if it's not actually used for anything in the real-world. The answer to that question is quite simply that the OSI model (due to being less condensed and more rigid than the TCP/IP model) tends to be easier for learning the initial theory of networking.

    The two models match up something like this:

    The processes of encapsulation and de-encapsulation work in exactly the same way with the TCP/IP model as they do with the OSI model. At each layer of the TCP/IP model a header is added during encapsulation, and removed during de-encapsulation.

    Now let's get down to the practical side of things.

    A layered model is great as a visual aid -- it shows us the general process of how data can be encapsulated and sent across a network, but how does it actually happen?

    When we talk about TCP/IP, it's all well and good to think about a table with four layers in it, but we're actually talking about a suite of protocols -- sets of rules that define how an action is to be carried out. TCP/IP takes its name from the two most important of these: the Transmission Control Protocol (which we touched upon earlier in the OSI model) that controls the flow of data between two endpoints, and the Internet Protocol, which controls how packets are addressed and sent. There are many more protocols that make up the TCP/IP suite; we will cover some of these in later tasks. For now though, let's talk about TCP.

    As mentioned earlier, TCP is a connection-based protocol. In other words, before you send any data via TCP, you must first form a stable connection between the two computers. The process of forming this connection is called the three-way handshake.

    When you attempt to make a connection, your computer first sends a special request to the remote server indicating that it wants to initialise a connection. This request contains something called a SYN (short for synchronise) bit, which essentially makes first contact in starting the connection process. The server will then respond with a packet containing the SYN bit, as well as another "acknowledgement" bit, called ACK. Finally, your computer will send a packet that contains the ACK bit by itself, confirming that the connection has been setup successfully. With the three-way handshake successfully completed, data can be reliably transmitted between the two computers. Any data that is lost or corrupted on transmission is re-sent, thus leading to a connection which appears to be lossless.

    (Credit Kieran Smith, Abertay University, TryHackMe)

    We're not going to go into exactly how this works on a step-to-step level -- not in this room at any rate. It is sufficient to know that the three-way handshake must be carried out before a connection can be established using TCP.


    It's important to understand exactly why the TCP/IP and OSI models were originally created. To begin with there was no standardisation -- different manufacturers followed their own methodologies, and consequently systems made by different manufacturers were completely incompatible when it came to networking. The TCP/IP model was introduced by the American DoD in 1982 to provide a standard -- something for all of the different manufacturers to follow. This sorted out the inconsistency problems. Later the OSI model was also introduced by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO); however, it's mainly used as a more comprehensive guide for learning, as the TCP/IP model is still the standard upon which modern networking is based.

    #1 Which model was introduced first, OSI or TCP/IP?

    ans :- TCP/IP

    #2 Which layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of the Transport layer of the OSI model (Full Name)?

    ANs :- transport

    #3 Which layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of the Session layer of the OSI model (Full Name)?

    Ans :- Application

    #4 The Network Interface layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of two layers in the OSI model. These layers are Data Link, and?.. (Full Name)?

    Ans :- Physical

    #5 Which layer of the TCP/IP model handles the functionality of the OSI network layer?

    Ans :- Internet

    #6 What kind of protocol is TCP?

    Ans :- Connection-based

    #7 What is SYN short for?

    Ans:- Synchronise

    #8 What is the second step of the three way handshake?

    Ans :- SYN/ACK

    #9 What is the short name for the "Acknowledgement" segment in the three-way handshake?

    Ans :-  ACK

    I hope you liked this post, then you should not forget to share this post at all.
    Thank you so much :-)

  • TorghostNG - How to anonymize your internet traffic

    So today we will know about the open source tool that helps in keep anonymous, TorghostNG - Make all your internet traffic anonymized with Tor network. This tool is scripted in python language as you can tell -_- you can help us by subscribing to our youtube channel :. Kumar Atul Jaiswal .: before using the too.

    About TorghostNG

    TorghostNG is a tool that make all your internet traffic anonymized through Tor network.

    Rewritten from TorGhost with Python 3.

    TorghostNG was tested on:

    •     Kali Linux
    •     Manjaro
    •     ...
    Privoxy is a non-caching web proxy with advanced filtering capabilities for enhancing privacy, modifying web page data and HTTP headers, controlling access, and removing ads and other obnoxious Internet junk. Privoxy has a flexible configuration and can be customized to suit individual needs and tastes. It has application for both stand-alone systems and multi-user networks.
    TorghostNG - Make all your internet traffic anonymized with Tor network.

    Before you use TorghostNG

    • For the goodness of Tor network, BitTorrent traffic will be blocked by iptables. Although you can bypass it with some tweaks with your torrent client disappointed_relieved. It's difficult to completely block all torrent traffic.
    • For security reason, TorghostNG is gonna disable IPv6 to prevent IPv6 leaks (it happened to me lmao or whatismyip.live). tor network TorghostNG  - How to anonymize your internet traffic

    Installing TorghostNG

    TorghostNG currently supports:
    •     GNU/Linux distros that based on Arch Linux
    •     GNU/Linux distros that based on Debian/Ubuntu
    •     GNU/Linux distros that based on Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, openSUSE
    •     Solus OS
    •     Void Linux
    •     Anh the elder guy: Slackware
    •     (Too much package managers for one day :v) torghostng

    How To Install ?

    1) git clone https://github.com/githacktools/TorghostNG

    2) ls

    cd TorghostNG


    3) sudo python3 install.py

    4) sudo python3 torghostng.py

    5) sudo python3 torghostng.py -s -c -id it



    This was written for educational purpose and pentest only.
    The author will not be responsible for any damage ..!
    The author of this tool is not responsible for any misuse of the information.
    You will not misuse the information to gain unauthorized access.
    This information shall only be used to expand knowledge and not for causing  malicious or damaging attacks. Performing any hacks without written permission is illegal ..!

    All video’s and tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar subjects to anyone using digital information and computers. We believe that it is impossible to defend yourself from hackers without knowing how hacking is done. The tutorials and videos provided on www.hackingtruth.in is only for those who are interested to learn about Ethical Hacking, Security, Penetration Testing and malware analysis. Hacking tutorials is against misuse of the information and we strongly suggest against it. Please regard the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing every time this word is used.

    All tutorials and videos have been made using our own routers, servers, websites and other resources, they do not contain any illegal activity. We do not promote, encourage, support or excite any illegal activity or hacking without written permission in general. We want to raise security awareness and inform our readers on how to prevent themselves from being a victim of hackers. If you plan to use the information for illegal purposes, please leave this website now. We cannot be held responsible for any misuse of the given information.

    - Hacking Truth by Kumar Atul Jaiswal

    Video Tutorial :- 



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