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    Loopholes are every major Security,Just need to Understand it well.

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Showing posts with label google post. Show all posts
Showing posts with label google post. Show all posts
  • TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     


    The platform develops virtual classrooms that not only allow users to deploy training environments with the click of a button, but also reinforce learning by adding a question-answer approach. Its a comfortable experience to learn using pre-designed courses which include virtual machines (VM) hosted in the cloud.

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough


    While using a question-answer model does make learning easier, TryHackMe allows users to create their own virtual classrooms to teach particular topics enabling them to become teachers. This not only provides other users with rich and varied content, but also helps creators reinforce their understanding of fundamental concepts.



    Room :- https://tryhackme.com/room/adventofcyber2


     TryHackMe Further Nmap Walkthrough


     

    Advent of Cyber 2


    Get started with Cyber Security in 25 Days - Learn the basics by doing a new, beginner friendly security challenge every day leading up to Christmas.

     

     

    Task 12 [Day 7] Networking The Grinch Really Did Steal Christmas 

     

    Story

    It's 6 AM and Elf McSkidy is clocking-in to The Best Festival Company's SOC headquarters to begin his watch over TBFC's infrastructure. After logging in, Elf McEager proceeds to read through emails left by Elf McSkidy during t he nightshift. TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

    More automatic scanning alerts, oh look, another APT group. It feels like it's going to be a long, but easy start to the week for Elf McEager.

    Whilst clearing the backlog of emails, Elf McEager reads the following: "URGENT: Data exfiltration detected on TBFC-WEB-01". "Uh oh" goes Elf McEager. "TBFC-WEB-01? That's Santa's webserver! Who has the motive to steal data from there?!". It's time for the ever-vigilant Elf McEager to prove his salt and find out exactly what happened.

    Unknowingly to Elf McEager, Elf McSkidy made this all up! Fortunately, this isn't a real attack - but a training exercise created ahead of Elf McEager's performance review.




    Learning Objectives



    What are IP Addresses & how are they assigned.
    Understanding TCP/IP and UDP
    3-way handshake

    Wireshark Crash Course (where is it used and why)
    Basic Filtering and operators

    Analysing our first few PCAPS
    HTTP
    SMB

    Challenge



    Made with ❤ by CMNatic

     

     

    What is an IP Address?


    You'll hear talk of the term "IP address" frequently throughout the information technology field - not just TryHackMe. Short for an Internet Protocol address, I like to explain this fundamental of networking using the same way that a postal/mail system works in real life.

    When sending a letter, you must provide the address for where the letter should go, and it is best practice to include your address as the return address in case the letter is lost (or you wish to let the recipient know how to reply). An IP address serves the same purpose but for devices connected to a network! Devices connected to the internet will have two of these addresses -a public and a private address. Think of a private address as the name of the recipient at a business i.e. Joe Smith, and the public address being the location of this business i.e. 160 Kemp Road, London.

    Let's say you are accessing the Internet through your computer. Your computer will be a part of two networks, and in turn, will use both public and private IP address:
     

    A private IP address to identify itself amongst other devices (such as smartphones, TV's and other computers) within the network of your house. In the screenshot below, the two devices have the following private IP address:

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

    TryHackMe similarly uses these private addresses. For you to access other TryHackMe devices such as the instances that you deploy in this room, you will need to be on the same private network as these instances are not connected to the internet. This is why you must use a client such as OpenVPN to connect to the network.

    MuirlandOracle explains how these private IP addresses work in his Intro to Networking room.
     

    A public IP address was given by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) that identifies your house on the Internet (the Internet is just many, many networks connected). Using our example from above, the two devices will share a public IP address to identify themselves on the Internet:

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough


    This is achieved through NATting, however, detailing how this works exactly this works is a bit beyond the scope of today.

     

    Protocols 101


    With the internet predicted to have 50 billion devices connected by the end of 2020 (https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/about/ac79/docs/innov/IoT_IBSG_0411FINAL.pdf), chaos quickly ensues if there are no ground-rules in how devices should communicate with each other.



    If this is a bit confusing - I don't blame you, just bear with me here. Think of it this way: You use protocols in everyday life! When talking to someone, you will both use the same set of protocols...otherwise, no one will understand each other. At the very least, all parties wishing to converse will use the same language - this is a protocol! Other protocols may also include the context or topic of the conversation. If anyone strays from these protocols - they risk not being understood! This is the same for network-connected devices.
     

    Back to the technical stuff...

    Enter protocols such as the TCP/IP & UDP/IP models. With TCP/IP being the most common-place today, we'll discuss this further. TCP/IP is a protocol that ensures that any data sent is processed in the same order. Going back to our postal system, your letter will go to many places - even when sending domestically. Your computer traffic does the same, going from device to device in a process called routing. One device could deliver data quicker (and a result, in a different order) then another causing a headache for the situation where accuracy is important such as the following:

    •     Downloading files
    •     Visiting a website in your browser
    •     Sending emails


    This is unlike the UDP protocol where having all packets is not quite as important (making the protocol a lot quicker than TCP/IP) which is why applications like video streaming make use of UDP (i.e. Skype). We don't really care if a few packets are lost as we can still see a majority of the picture.

    How does TCP/IP send data? The Three-Way Handshake:

    The three-way handshake is the method that makes TCP reliable. Any data that is sent is given a random number sequence and is reconstructed using this number sequence and incrementing by 1. Both computers must agree on the same number sequence for data to be sent in the correct order. This order is agreed upon during three steps.

    In the diagram below, "Client" has the initial sequence number (ISN) of "0" where the "Server" has "5,000". Any data sent from "Client" and received on "Server" will be initial sequence + 1. If this is the first packet from "Client" this would be "0 + 1". I've shown three packets being sent from "Client" in the table below to help demonstrate this:

     

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

    1. SYN - Client: Here's my initial number sequence (ISN) to SYNchronise with (0)
    2. SYN/ACK - Server: Here my Initial Number Sequence (ISN) to SYNchronise with (5,000) and I ACKnowledge your initial number sequence (0)
    3. ACK - Client: I ACKnowledge your Initial Number Sequence (ISN) of (5,000) here is some data that is my ISN+1


    When the data is received, it is reassembled by the receiver. Let's show the conditions of which reassembly is required:

     

     

    Examples of TCP reassembling data:

    No reassembly required:


    If the "Server" were to receive data that was received in the exact order it was sent from "Client":

    •     Sent 1st - Received 1st
    •     Sent 2nd - Received 2nd
    •     Sent 3rd - Received 3rd


    Then no reassembly is needed as the data is received in the exact order it was sent.

    Reassembly required:


    For example, if the "Server" was to receive all the data, but in a different order then what was sent, reassembly is required:

    •     Sent 1st - Received 1st
    •     Sent 2nd - Received 3rd
    •     Sent 3rd - Received 2nd


    Because all data is received, just in a different order, it can be reassembled using the agreed sequence numbers that would have been exchanged during the three-way-handshake.

    The connection is dropped:


    If the "Client" was to send three packets, but the "Server" only receives two out of three packets, they are disconnected from each other as the data sent is corrupt:

    •     Sent 1st - Received 1st
    •     Sent 2nd - Not received
    •     Sent 3rd - Received 2nd


    The data will not be processed by "Server" as the packet that was sent 2nd by the "Client" was never received by the "Server"#2, meaning there was a loss of data along the way.

    Crash Course in Monitoring Network Traffic:


    Being able to capture exactly what is travelling across a network and understanding this is an important skill in information technology. From diagnosing to capturing credentials, positions in IT ranging from system administrators to digital forensics and us pentesters all use network traffic in their own ways. For example, since data sent via HTTP or FTP is unencrypted, a pentester might be able to capture usernames and passwords being entered into a website.

    Introducing Wireshark:


    Wireshark is capable of recording a log of all the packets sent and received on a computer's network adapter. For example, we can see how a computer (highlighted in red) connected to a computer (highlighted in black) that was running a web server via HTTP, in this case, it was the web page: 

    web_server/download.HTML, which we can export and view for ourselves:

     

     

     
     
     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

    Networks are, however, rather noisy...Wireshark captured 2,648 packets after a single minute on my machine. This makes analysing very hard. Thankfully, we can use filters to narrow down the results. We can filter by many things, but we'll only cover a couple of important ones in the table below. Note that all the examples below use the == operator to see if the filter exactly matches the value we give it.

     

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

    Combining Filters With Operators

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

    Exporting data from Wireshark:


    As previously shown, Wireshark is capable of exporting data from protocols such as HTTP by navigating to "File → Export Objects" and selecting the protocol available. In the screenshots below, we are listing objects that can be exported from the file-sharing SMB protocol.

     


    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

     We'll export the "test.txt" file onto our device.

     

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

    As highlighted below:

     

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough


     

    Challenge


    Download the ZIP file "aocpcaps.zip" that is attached to this task, use a combination of the filters and features of Wireshark we've covered to answer the questions below:


    1) Open "pcap1.pcap" in Wireshark. What is the IP address that initiates an ICMP/ping?

    HINT :- Filter - ICMP


    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough


    2) If we only wanted to see HTTP GET requests in our "pcap1.pcap" file, what filter would we use?

    Ans :- http.request.method == GET / POST


    3) Now apply this filter to "pcap1.pcap" in Wireshark, what is the name of the article that the IP address "10.10.67.199" visited?

    HINT :- Filter - http.request.method == GET 

    or anything else...

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

    Ans :- reindeer-of-the-week


    4) Let's begin analysing "pcap2.pcap". Look at the captured FTP traffic; what password was leaked during the login process?

    There's a lot of irrelevant data here - Using a filter here would be useful!


    HINT :- As FTP uses the TCP protocol and runs on port 21, we'd use the "tcp.port" filter and "==" operator to only show all data that is TCP and uses port 21. The filter we would use: is "tcp.port == 21"

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough

     

    Ans :- PASS plaintext_password_fiasco


    5) Continuing with our analysis of "pcap2.pcap", what is the name of the protocol that is encrypted?

    Ans :- ssh

     


    6) Analyse "pcap3.pcap" and recover Christmas!

    What is on Elf McSkidy's wishlist that will be used to replace Elf McEager?


    HINT :- There's a lot of data! Only a tiny part of it is useful - use filters! How would you export files?



    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 7 Walkthrough


    Ans :-  Rubber Ducky




    Disclaimer


    This was written for educational purpose and pentest only.
    The author will not be responsible for any damage ..!
    The author of this tool is not responsible for any misuse of the information.
    You will not misuse the information to gain unauthorized access.
    This information shall only be used to expand knowledge and not for causing  malicious or damaging attacks. Performing any hacks without written permission is illegal ..!


    All video’s and tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar subjects to anyone using digital information and computers. We believe that it is impossible to defend yourself from hackers without knowing how hacking is done. The tutorials and videos provided on www.hackingtruth.in is only for those who are interested to learn about Ethical Hacking, Security, Penetration Testing and malware analysis. Hacking tutorials is against misuse of the information and we strongly suggest against it. Please regard the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing every time this word is used.


    All tutorials and videos have been made using our own routers, servers, websites and other resources, they do not contain any illegal activity. We do not promote, encourage, support or excite any illegal activity or hacking without written permission in general. We want to raise security awareness and inform our readers on how to prevent themselves from being a victim of hackers. If you plan to use the information for illegal purposes, please leave this website now. We cannot be held responsible for any misuse of the given information.



    - Hacking Truth by Kumar Atul Jaiswal



    I hope you liked this post, then you should not forget to share this post at all.
    Thank you so much :-)

  • TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 5 Walkthrough

     


     
    The platform develops virtual classrooms that not only allow users to deploy training environments with the click of a button, but also reinforce learning by adding a question-answer approach. Its a comfortable experience to learn using pre-designed courses which include virtual machines (VM) hosted in the cloud.

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 5 Walkthrough


    While using a question-answer model does make learning easier, TryHackMe allows users to create their own virtual classrooms to teach particular topics enabling them to become teachers. This not only provides other users with rich and varied content, but also helps creators reinforce their understanding of fundamental concepts.



    Room :- https://tryhackme.com/room/adventofcyber2


     TryHackMe Further Nmap Walkthrough


     

    Advent of Cyber 2


    Get started with Cyber Security in 25 Days - Learn the basics by doing a new, beginner friendly security challenge every day leading up to Christmas.

     

    [Day 5] Web Exploitation Someone stole Santa's gift list!


    After last year's attack, Santa and the security team have worked hard on reviving Santa's personal portal. Hence, 'Santa's forum 2' went live.

    After the attack, logs have revealed that someone has found Santa's panel on the website and logged into his account! After doing so, they were able to dump the whole gift list database, getting all the 2020 gifts in their hands. An attacker has threatened to publish a wishlist.txt file, containing all information, but happily, for us, he was caught by the CBI (Christmas Bureau of Investigation) before that. On MACHINE_IP:8000 you'll find the copy of the website and your goal is to replicate the attacker's actions by dumping the gift list!



    What is SQL Injection?


    A SQL injection (SQLi) attack consists of the injection of a SQL query to the remote web application. A successful SQL injection exploit can read sensitive data from the database (usernames & passwords), modify database data (Add/Delete), execute administration operations on the database (such as shutdown the database), and in some cases execute commands on the operating system.
    SQL Background

    SQL is a language used in programming to talk to databases. It's an extremely handy language that makes it easy for the developers to organise data in various structures. Unfortunately, the benefit always comes with a drawback; even a little misconfiguration in SQL code can lead to a potential SQL injection.

    I advise you to quickly go through this SQL command guide in order to make yourself familiar with them: TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 5 Walkthrough



    List of SQL Commands | Codecademy






     

    It is important to mention that 1=1 in SQL stands for True (shortly you'll see the reason as to why I mention this).


    How does an SQLi attack work?


    SQLi is carried out through abusing a PHP GET parameter (for example ?username=, or ?id=) in the URL of a vulnerable web page, such as those covered in Day 2. These are usually located in the search fields and login pages, so as a penetration tester, you need to note those down.

    Here's an example of a username input field written in PHP:



     

    After a variable username was inputted in the code, PHP automatically uses SQL to select all users with the provided username. Exactly this fact can be abused by an attacker.

    Let's say a malicious user provides a quotation mark (') as the username input. Then the SQL code will look like this:

     


     

    As you can see, that mark creates a third one and generates an error since the username should only be provided with two. Exactly this error is used to exploit the SQL injection.

    Generally speaking, SQL injection is an attack in which your goal is to break SQL code execution logic, inject your own, and then 'fix' the broken part by adding comments at the end.

     


     

    Graphical interpretation

    Most commonly used comments for SQLi payloads:

     


     

    Login Bypass with SQL Injection


    One of the most powerful applications of SQL injection is definitely login bypassing. It allows an attacker to get into ANY account as long as they know either username or password to it (most commonly you'll only know username).

    First, let's find out the reason behind the possibility to do so. Say, our login application uses PHP to check if username and password match the database with following SQL query:


    SELECT username,password FROM users WHERE username='$username' and password='$password'

     

     
    As you see here, the query is using inputted username and password to validate it with the database.

    What happens if we input ' or true -- username field there? This will turn the above query into this:

    SELECT username,password FROM users WHERE username='' or true -- and password=''


     

    The -- in this case has commented out the password checking part, making the application forget to check if the password was correct. This trick allows you to log in to any account by just putting a username and payload right after it.

    Note that some websites can use a different SQL query, such as:

    SELECT username,pass FROM users WHERE username=('$username') and password=('$password')

     

    In this case, you'll have to add a single bracket to your payload like so: ') or true– to make it work.

    You can practice login bypassing on a deployed machine, port 3000 (First browse to 10.10.200.48:3000/init.php and then to 10.10.200.48:3000). I've put an extra interactive exercise there. It'll show you all back end output, allowing you to experiment and practice with SQL commands.
    Blind SQL Injection

    In some cases, developers become smart enough to mitigate SQL Injection by restricting an application from displaying any error. Happily, this does not mean we cannot perform the attack.
    Blind SQL Injection relies on changes in a web application, during the attack. In other words, an error in SQL query will be noticeable in some other form (i.e changed content or other).

    Since in this situation we can only see if an error was produced or not, blind SQLi is carried out through asking 'Yes' or 'No' questions to the database (Error = 'No', No Error = 'Yes').
    Through that system, an attacker can guess the database name, read columns and etc. Blind SQLi will take more time than other types but can be the most common one in the wild.

    Start off with finding a way to cause the SQL error and then fixing it back.

     

     


    Breaking the application

     


     

    Fixing it - Notice how the app did not output any error, even though I've clearly caused an SQL error.

    For asking the questions, you can use SUBSTR() SQL function. It extracts a substring from a string and allows us to compare the substring to a custom ASCII character.

    substr((select database()),1,1)) = 115

     

    The above code is asking the database if its name's first letter is equal to 155 ('s' in ASCII table).

    Now put this into a payload:

    ?id=1' AND (ascii(substr((select database()),1,1))) = 115 --+

     

    The payload is the question. If the application does not produce any changes, then the answer is 'Yes' (the database's first letter is 's'). Any error or change = 'No'.

     


     

    Note: You can use blind SQLi injection techniques in the 'open' situation too.
    UNION SQL Injection

    UNION SQLi is mainly used for fast database enumeration, as the UNION operator allows you to combine results of multiple SELECT statements at a time.

     

    UNION SQLi attack consists of 3 stages:

    1.     Finding the number of columns
    2.     Checking if the columns are suitable
    3.     Attack and get some interesting data.


     

    Determining the number of columns required in an SQL injection UNION attack

    There are exactly two ways to detect one:

    The first one involves injecting a series of ORDER BY queries until an error occurs. For example:

     


     


    (The last value before the error would indicate the number of columns.)

    The second one (most common and effective), would involve submitting a series of UNION SELECT payloads with a number of NULL values:

     



    No error = number of NULL matches the number of columns.
     

    Finding columns with a useful data type in an SQL injection UNION attack

    Generally, the interesting data that you want to retrieve will be in string form. Having already determined the number of required columns, (for example 4) you can probe each column to test whether it can hold string data by replacing one of the UNION SELECT payloads with a string value. In case of 4 you would submit:

     

     


     

    No error = data type is useful for us (string).

    Using an SQL injection UNION attack to retrieve interesting data

    When you have determined the number of columns and found which columns can hold string data, you can finally start retrieving interesting data.

     

    Suppose that:

    • The first two steps showed exactly two existing columns with useful datatype.
    • The database contains a table called users with the columns username and password.


    In this situation, you can retrieve the contents of the user's table by submitting the input:

    ' UNION SELECT username, password FROM users --



    Here's a small list of thing you'd want to retrieve:

    •     database()
    •     user()
    •     @@version
    •     username
    •     password
    •     table_name
    •     column_name


     

    SQLMap


    SQLMap is an open-source penetration testing tool that automates the process of detecting and exploiting SQL injection flaws and taking over of database servers. It's an incredible tool that can be learned within minutes. It's already included in THM's AttackBox or you can install it locally by running:

    git clone --depth 1 <https://github.com/sqlmapproject/sqlmap.git> sqlmap-dev




     Let's show an example of an SQLMap command. Let's say we have a vulnerable login form located at "http://tbfc.net/login.php". (Note, this is just an example, please do not SQLMap this website as no consent has been given by the owner.) We would use this alongside --url to tell SQLMap where to attack. i.e. sqlmap --url http://tbfc.net/login.php

    Where we can then proceed to enumerate what data is in the application's database with options such as --tables and --columns. Leaving our final SQLMap looking like so: sqlmap --url http://tbfc.net/login.php --tables --columns

    Again, tbfc.net is given as an example, please do not perform any attack on this site.
     

    You can find a cheatsheet for more snippets of SQLMap commands here

     

     

    SQLMap & BurpSuite


    The most beneficial feature of sqlmap is its integration with BurpSuite.

    With BurpSuite, you can capture and save login or search information to use with SQLMap. This is done by intercepting a request. You will need to configure your browser to use BurpSuite as a proxy for this request to capture. The AttackBox has made this simple for you by using the FoxyProxy extension in Firefox.

        

    1) First let's startup BurpSuite located in "Applications -> Web -> BurpSuite Community Edition" on the AttackBox
    2) Use Firefox to visit the application we suspect to be vulnerable
    3) Enable FoxyProxy in Firefox:

     


     

    4) Submit a request on the web application we suspect to be vulnerable
    5) Send the request from the "Proxy" tab to the repeater by right-clicking and pressing "Send to Repeater"
    6) Notice our request is now in the "Repeater" tab:




    7) Finally, save this request by right-clicking and pressing "Save item"



    We can then use this request in SQLMap:

    sqlmap -r filename

    SQLMap will automatically translate the request and exploit the database for you.


    Challenge


    Visit the vulnerable application in Firefox, find Santa's secret login panel and bypass the login. Use some of the commands and tools covered throughout today's task to answer Questions #3 to #6.

    Santa reads some documentation that he wrote when setting up the application, it reads:

    Santa's TODO: Look at alternative database systems that are better than sqlite. Also, don't forget that you installed a Web Application Firewall (WAF) after last year's attack. In case you've forgotten the command, you can tell SQLMap to try and bypass the WAF by using --tamper=space2comment
    Resources

    Check out this cheat sheet: swisskyrepo/PayloadsAllTheThings

    Payload list: payloadbox/sql-injection-payload-list

    In-depth SQL Injection tutorial: SQLi Basics



    1) Without using directory brute forcing, what's Santa's secret login panel?

    HINT :- The name is derived out of 2 words from this question. /s**tap***l

    Ans :- /santapanel


    visit this Machine IP and it can be something else in your case. visit your machine ip with /santapanel directory.




     

    Using Burp with SQLMap

    we will bypass a login page through SQL injection,so, first we will set a proxy and open Burp suite, and enable intercep option in burp suite and after then load the page and intercept the network .




    and right click on blank side and save the file with anyname like -



    let's do SQL Injection with this command and find the answer to all the question.


    sudo sqlmap -r panel_request --tamper=space2comment --dump-all --dbms sqlite



    2) How many entries are there in the gift database?

    Ans :-  22

     

    3) What did Paul ask for?


    Ans :-  Github Ownership


    4) What is the flag?


    Ans :-  thmfox{All_I_Want_for_Christmas_Is_You}

     
    5) What is admin's password?

    Ans :- EhCNSWzzFP6sc7gB





    Disclaimer


    This was written for educational purpose and pentest only.
    The author will not be responsible for any damage ..!
    The author of this tool is not responsible for any misuse of the information.
    You will not misuse the information to gain unauthorized access.
    This information shall only be used to expand knowledge and not for causing  malicious or damaging attacks. Performing any hacks without written permission is illegal ..!


    All video’s and tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar subjects to anyone using digital information and computers. We believe that it is impossible to defend yourself from hackers without knowing how hacking is done. The tutorials and videos provided on www.hackingtruth.in is only for those who are interested to learn about Ethical Hacking, Security, Penetration Testing and malware analysis. Hacking tutorials is against misuse of the information and we strongly suggest against it. Please regard the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing every time this word is used.


    All tutorials and videos have been made using our own routers, servers, websites and other resources, they do not contain any illegal activity. We do not promote, encourage, support or excite any illegal activity or hacking without written permission in general. We want to raise security awareness and inform our readers on how to prevent themselves from being a victim of hackers. If you plan to use the information for illegal purposes, please leave this website now. We cannot be held responsible for any misuse of the given information.



    - Hacking Truth by Kumar Atul Jaiswal



    I hope you liked this post, then you should not forget to share this post at all.
    Thank you so much :-)


  • TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 3 Walkthrough

     

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 3 Walkthrough

     

     
    The platform develops virtual classrooms that not only allow users to deploy training environments with the click of a button, but also reinforce learning by adding a question-answer approach. Its a comfortable experience to learn using pre-designed courses which include virtual machines (VM) hosted in the cloud.


    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 3 Walkthrough


    While using a question-answer model does make learning easier, TryHackMe allows users to create their own virtual classrooms to teach particular topics enabling them to become teachers. This not only provides other users with rich and varied content, but also helps creators reinforce their understanding of fundamental concepts.



    Room :- https://tryhackme.com/room/adventofcyber2


     TryHackMe Further Nmap Walkthrough


     

    Advent of Cyber 2


    Get started with Cyber Security in 25 Days - Learn the basics by doing a new, beginner friendly security challenge every day leading up to Christmas.

     

    Task 8 [Day 3] Web Exploitation Christmas Chaos


    McSkidy is walking down the corridor and hears a faint bleeping noise, Beep.... Beep.... Beep... as McSkidy gets closer to Sleigh Engineering Room the faint noise gets louder and louder.. BEEP.... BEEP.... Something is clearly wrong! McSkidy runs to the room, slamming open the door to see Santa's sleighs control panel lite up in red error messages! "Santa sleigh! It's been hacked, code red.. code red!" he screams as he runs back to the elf security command center.

    Can you help McSkidy and his team hack into Santa's Sleigh to re-gain control?


    Learning Objectives

    •     Understanding Authentication
    •     Understand the use of default credentials and why they're dangerous
    •     Bypass a login form using BurpSuite



    Authentication


    Authentication is a process of verifying a users' identity, normally by credentials (such as a username, user id or password); to put simply, authentication involves checking that somebody really is who they claim to be. Authorization (which is fundamentally different to authentication, but often used interchangeably) determines what a user can and can't access; authorization is covered in tomorrow walkthrough, today's task focuses on authentication and some common flaws. TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 3 Walkthrough

     

     

    Authorization vs Authentication

    Authentication and authorization might sound similar, but they are distinct security processes in the world of identity and access management (IAM). Authentication confirms that users are who they say they are. Authorization gives those users permission to access a resource.

     

    Default Credentials


    You've probably purchased (or downloaded a service/program) that provides you with a set of credentials at the start and requires you to change the password after it's set up (usually these credentials that are provided at the start are the same for every device/every copy of the software). The trouble with this is that if it's not changed, an attacker can look up (or even guess) the credentials.

    What's even worse is that these devices are often exposed to the internet, potentially allowing anyone to access and control it. In 2018 it was reported that a botnet (a number of internet-connected devices controlled by an attacker to typically perform DDoS attacks) called Mirai took advantage of Internet of Things (IoT) devices by remotely logging, configuring the device to perform malicious attacks at the control of the attackers; the Mirai botnet infected over 600,000 IoT devices mostly by scanning the internet and using default credentials to gain access.

    In fact, companies such as Starbucks and the US Department of Defense have been victim to leaving services running with default credentials, and bug hunters have been rewarded for reporting these very simple issues responsibly (Starbucks paid $250 for the reported issue):


    https://hackerone.com/reports/195163 - Starbucks, bug bounty for default credentials.
     

    https://hackerone.com/reports/804548 - US Dept Of Defense, admin access via default credentials.

    In 2017, it was reported that 15% of all IoT devices still use default passwords.

    SecLists is a collection of common lists including usernames, passwords, URLs and much more. A password list known as "rockyou.txt" is commonly used in security challenges, and should definitely be a part of your security toolkit.

    Dictionary Attacks using BurpSuite

    A dictionary attack is a method of breaking into an authenticated system by iterating through a list of credentials. If you have a list of default (or the most common) usernames and passwords, you can loop through each of them in hopes that one of the combinations is successful.

    You can use a number of tools to perform a dictionary attack, one notable one being Hydra (a fast network logon cracker) and BurpSuite, an industry-standard tool used for web application penetration testing. Given day 3 is about web exploitation, we'll show you how to use BurpSuite to perform a dictionary attack on a web login form.

    To download BurpSuite click here, otherwise, BurpSuite is pre-installed on our web-based AttackBox.


    1. Start BurpSuite, you can do this on the AttackBox by clicking BurpSuite logo in the icon tray.


    2. Once this has loaded, you want to "Intercept" your traffic by proxying it through the BurpSuite, which will then forward the request to the intended destination (in our case it will be a website) This will give you the ability to analyse and modify your browsers traffic.
        

     1) This example uses the AttackBox, and makes proxying traffic to BurpSuite easy (if you're using BurpSuite on your own machine, click here) to see how to proxy traffic to BurpSuite). On the AttackBox, open Firefox, click on the FoxyProxy browser extension, and select "Burp" - this will now proxy your traffic to BurpSuite.


     


     

    2) Go to the BurpSuite application and click the Proxy tab, then click the button "Intercept is on".

    3) Navigate to your chosen website, as you're intercepting your traffic, you will see BurpSuite has held your request and will not forward it on until you tell it to. Let's go to our web application and submit your details into a given form, in our case its a generic login form.


    4) This captured request will show up in the Proxy tab. Right-click it, and click "Send to Intruder"; BurpSuite has a lot of functionality to repeat modify and manipulate requests, Burp Intruder is a tool to automate customize web attacks. We will use intruder to loop through and submit a login request using a list of default credential, in the hopes that one of the usernames and passwords in the list is correct.



    5) Go to the Intruder tab, you should see your request. Here we will insert "positions" (telling Burp which fields to update when automating a request), select a list per position and start the attack.

       i) Click the "Positions" tab, and clear the pre-selected positions.
       ii) Add the username and password values as positions (highlight the text and click "Add")
       iii) Select "Cluster Bomb" in the Attack type dropdown menu; this attack type iterates through each payloads sets in turn, so every combination of each set is tested.




    6) We're going to tell each "Position" which Payload to use. In our example, we will select a list of usernames for the username field and a list of passwords for the password field.

       i) Click the "Payloads" tab, select your Payload set (set 1 is the username field, set 2 is the password field) and add select your list in the "Payload Options" section (or manually add entries).
      ii)  For set 1 (username), we will add a few common default username entries such as "admin", "root" and "user"



    iii) For set 2 (password), we will add a few common default passwords such as "password", "admin" and "12345"





    7) Click the "Start Attack" button, this will loop through each position list in every combination. You can sort by the "Length" or "Status" to identify a successful login (typically all incorrect logins will have the same status or length, if a combination is correct it will be different.


    Use what you've learnt to help McSkidy hack back into the Santa Sleigh Tracker!



    1) Use BurpSuite to brute force the login form.  Use the following lists for the default credentials:



    Use the correct credentials to log in to the Santa Sleigh Tracker app. Don't forget to turn off Foxyproxy once BurpSuite has finished the attack!

    What is the flag?




    Ans :-  THM{885ffab980e049847516f9d8fe99ad1a}


    See you soon, with another task N day. So till then bookmark our website

     


    Disclaimer


    This was written for educational purpose and pentest only.
    The author will not be responsible for any damage ..!
    The author of this tool is not responsible for any misuse of the information.
    You will not misuse the information to gain unauthorized access.
    This information shall only be used to expand knowledge and not for causing  malicious or damaging attacks. Performing any hacks without written permission is illegal ..!


    All video’s and tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar subjects to anyone using digital information and computers. We believe that it is impossible to defend yourself from hackers without knowing how hacking is done. The tutorials and videos provided on www.hackingtruth.in is only for those who are interested to learn about Ethical Hacking, Security, Penetration Testing and malware analysis. Hacking tutorials is against misuse of the information and we strongly suggest against it. Please regard the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing every time this word is used.


    All tutorials and videos have been made using our own routers, servers, websites and other resources, they do not contain any illegal activity. We do not promote, encourage, support or excite any illegal activity or hacking without written permission in general. We want to raise security awareness and inform our readers on how to prevent themselves from being a victim of hackers. If you plan to use the information for illegal purposes, please leave this website now. We cannot be held responsible for any misuse of the given information.



    - Hacking Truth by Kumar Atul Jaiswal



    I hope you liked this post, then you should not forget to share this post at all.
    Thank you so much :-)


  • TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 2 Walkthrough

     


     
    The platform develops virtual classrooms that not only allow users to deploy training environments with the click of a button, but also reinforce learning by adding a question-answer approach. Its a comfortable experience to learn using pre-designed courses which include virtual machines (VM) hosted in the cloud.

    TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 2 Walkthrough


    While using a question-answer model does make learning easier, TryHackMe allows users to create their own virtual classrooms to teach particular topics enabling them to become teachers. This not only provides other users with rich and varied content, but also helps creators reinforce their understanding of fundamental concepts.



    Room :- https://tryhackme.com/room/adventofcyber2


     TryHackMe Further Nmap Walkthrough


     

    Advent of Cyber 2


    Get started with Cyber Security in 25 Days - Learn the basics by doing a new, beginner friendly security challenge every day leading up to Christmas.

     

     

    Task 7 [Day 2] Web Exploitation The Elf Strikes Back!



    After your heroic deeds regaining control of the control centre yesterday, Elf McSkidy has decided to give you an important job to do.

    "We know we've been hacked, so we need a way to protect ourselves! The dev team have set up a website for the elves to upload pictures of any suspicious people hanging around the factory, but we need to make sure it's secure before we add it to the public network. Please perform a security audit on the new server and make sure it's unhackable!" TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 2 Walkthrough

    You listen to the briefing and accept the task, pressing the deploy button to start the server as you do so.

    McSkidy once again gives you a dossier of useful information to help you with your task, which you read as you wait for the server to boot:


     

    GET Parameters and URLs


    We looked briefly at the differences between GET and POST requests in the previous dossier; however, the emphasis was on the POST requests used in a login form. The server you'll be testing today employs a concept called "GET parameters". Just as POST requests can be used to send information to the server, so too can GET requests be used; however, there is one important difference. With POST requests the data being sent is included in the "body" of the request. With GET requests, the data is included in the URL as a "parameter". This is best demonstrated with an example:

    https://www.thebestfestivalcompany.co.uk/index.php?snack=mincePie

    (Please Note: this site is completely fictitious. It does not exist, and connecting to it is not part of the task)

    There are 7 different parts which make up this URL. Let's look at each of them in turn:

     

     

    1. First up we have the protocol (https://). This specifies whether the request should be made using HTTP, or HTTPS. In our example, we are using HTTPS.
    2. Next we have the subdomain (www). This is traditionally "www" (World Wide Web) to signify that the target is a website; however, this is not essential. Indeed, subdomains can be basically anything you want; for example, a lot of websites use things like "assets", or "api" to indicate different subdomains with different uses. (e.g. https://api.thebestfestivalcompany.co.uk).
    3. The next part of the URL is the domain (thebestfestivalcompany). Domains need to be registered and are used as links between a memorable word or phrase, and an IP address. In other words, they're used to give a name to the server running a website.
    4. Next up we have the TLD (Top Level Domain) -- .co.uk, for our example. Top-level domains are used by DNS to determine where to look if they want to find your domain. Previously top-level domains had specific uses (and many still do!), but this is not always the case these days. For example, .co.uk  indicates a company based in the UK, .com indicates a company based in the US.
    5. We then have the resource that we're selecting -- in this case that is the homepage of the website: index.php. As a side note, all homepages must be called "index" in order to be correctly served by the web server without having to be specified fully, unless this parameter has been changed from the default in the webserver configuration. This is how you can go to [https://tryhackme.com](https://tryhackme.com) without having to specify that you want to receive the home page -- the index page is served automatically because you didn't specify!
    6. The final two aspects of the URL are the most important for our current topic: they both relate to GET parameters. First up we have ?snack=. Here ? is used to specify that a GET parameter is forthcoming. We then have the parameter name: snack. This is used to identify the parameter to the server. We then have an equals sign (=), indicating that the value will come next.
    7. Finally, we have the value of the GET parameter: mincePie, because who doesn't like mince pies, right?
    8. It's important to note exactly which part of the URL is the GET parameter. Specifically, we are talking about ?snack=mincePie. If there was more than one parameter, we would separate them with an ampersand (&). For example: ?snack=mincePie&drink=hotChocolate. In this way we can send multiple values to the server, distinguished by keys (i.e. "mincePie" is identified by the key: "snack").

     

    It's important to note exactly which part of the URL is the GET parameter. Specifically, we are talking about ?snack=mincePie. If there was more than one parameter, we would separate them with an ampersand (&). For example: ?snack=mincePie&drink=hotChocolate. In this way we can send multiple values to the server, distinguished by keys (i.e. "mincePie" is identified by the key: "snack").

     

     

    File Uploads


    There are countless uses for file uploads in the modern internet -- profile pictures, school/university submissions, diagrams, pictures of your dog, you name it! Whilst file uploads are very common, they're also very easy to implement in an insecure fashion. For this reason, it's important that we understand the gravity of the attack vector.

    When you have the ability to upload files to a server, you have a path straight to RCE (Remote Command Execution). An upload form with no restrictions would mean that you could upload a script that, when executed, connects back to your attacking machine and gives you the ability to run any command you want. It would be very unusual to find a file upload with no filtering; but it's much less uncommon to find a file upload that employs flawed filtering techniques which can be circumvented to upload a malicious script. The script has to be written in a language which the server can execute. PHP is usually a good choice for this, as most websites are still written with a PHP back end.

    There isn't time to go over every kind of filter bypass in this task (there is literally an entire room on this topic, which is recommended for further practice). Instead, we'll just cover one of the most common types of filter and its bypass:
     

    File Extension Filtering: As the name suggests extension filtering checks the file extension of uploaded files. This is often done by specifying a list of allowed extensions, then checking the uploaded file against the list. If the extension is not in the allowlist, the upload is rejected.
        

    So, what's the bypass? Well, the answer is that it depends entirely on how the filter is implemented. Many extension filters split a filename at the dot (.) and check what comes after it against the list. This makes it very easy to bypass by uploading a double-barrelled extension (e.g. .jpg.php). The filter splits at the dot(s), then checks what it thinks is the extension against the list. If jpg is an allowed extension then the upload will succeed and our malicious PHP script will be uploaded to the server.

    When implementing an upload system, it's good practice to upload the files to a directory that can't be accessed remotely. Unfortunately, this is often not the case, and scripts are uploaded to a subdirectory on the webserver (often something like /uploads, /images, /media, or /resources). For example, we might be able to find the uploaded script at https://www.thebestfestivalcompany.co.uk/images/shell.jpg.php.

     

     


     

     

     

    Reverse Shells


    Let's assume that we've found somewhere to upload our malicious script, and we've bypassed the filter -- what then? There are a few paths we can take: the most common of which is uploading a reverse shell. This is a script that creates a network connection from the server, to our attacking machine. The majority of webservers are written with a PHP back end, which means we need a PHP reverse shell script -- there happens to be one already on Kali/AttackBox at /usr/share/webshells/php/php-reverse-shell.php (Note: if you're not using Kali or the provided AttackBox, the same script can be found here.

     

    Copy the webshell out into your current directory (cp /usr/share/webshells/php/php-reverse-shell.php .), then open it with your text editor of choice.
     

    Scroll down to where it has $ip and $port (both marked with // CHANGE THIS). Set the IP to your TryHackMe IP Address (which can be found in the green bubble on the navbar, if you're using the AttackBox, or by running ip a show tun0 if you're using your own Linux VM with the OpenVPN connection pack) -- making sure to keep the double-quotes. Set the port to 443 with no double quotes, then save and exit the file. Congratulations, you now have a fully configured PHP reverse shell script!




     
     
     



     

     

    PHP reverse shells can be very easily activated when stored in an accessible location: simply navigate to the file in your browser to execute the script (and send the reverse shell):

     


     

     

    In the diagram, we first upload our shell. We then navigate to it in our browser, causing the server to send a reverse shell back to our waiting listener.
    For a more in-depth explanation of reverse shells, check out the Intro to Shells room.



    Reverse Shell Listeners


    We've spoken at length about reverse shell listeners, but what are they? In short, a reverse shell listener is used to open a network socket to receive a raw connection -- like the one created by a reverse shell being executed! The simplest form of listener is created by using a program called netcat, which is installed on both Kali and the AttackBox by default. We can create a listener for an uploaded reverse shell by using this command: sudo nc -lvnp 443. This essentially creates a listener on port 443. In a real-world environment, you would want to use a common port such as 443 that is not filtered by firewalls in most scenarios, increasing the chances our reverse shell connects back.. Once netcat has been setup, our reverse shell will be able to connect back to this when activated.

    The full explanation can be found in the Intro to Shells room linked above, if you're interested.

     

     

    Putting it all together

    This was a lot of information, so let's put it all together and look at the full process for exploiting a file upload vulnerability in a PHP web application:



     

    Find a file upload point.
     

    Try uploading some innocent files -- what does it accept? (Images, text files, PDFs, etc)


    •     Find the directory containing your uploads.
    •     Try to bypass any filters and upload a reverse shell.
    •     Start a netcat listener to receive the shell
    •     Navigate to the shell in your browser and receive a connection!


     

    At the bottom of the dossier is a sticky note containing the following message:
    For Elf McEager:
        

    You have been assigned an ID number for your audit of the system: ODIzODI5MTNiYmYw . Use this to gain access to the upload section of the site. TryHackMe Advent of Cyber 2 Day 2 Walkthrough
        

    Good luck!

    You note down the ID number and navigate to the displayed IP address (Your TryHackMe IP) in your browser.

     

    Let's start



    1) What string of text needs adding to the URL to get access to the upload page?



     

    Ans :- ?id=ODIzODI5MTNiYmYw



    2) What type of file is accepted by the site?

    HINT :- There are three filetypes accepted by the upload form. These can be found by checking the page source code. They all have something in common in that they are types of ____ file.

     



     

    Ans :- image


    3) Bypass the filter and upload a reverse shell.

    In which directory are the uploaded files stored?

    HINT :-  The filter can be bypassed using the technique taught in the task. The answer can be found with a tool such as Gobuster, or by checking each of the common directories from the dossier.

     

    gobuster dir -u http://10.10.254.172/  -w  /usr/share/dirb/wordlists/common.txt --wildcard

     

    You can also use BURP SUITE with uploading a php reverse shell file (change the extension with your Tunnel IP and Port (.jpg.php)

     



    Ans :- /uploads/



    4) Activate your reverse shell and catch it in a netcat listener!

    Ans :- no answer needed





    5) What is the flag in /var/www/flag.txt? 

     

    First of all we will upload a reverse shell file with the extension (.jpg.php ) and burp suite intercept is ON.






    After this we will forward the PHP file name by adding it to the GET parameter of the BURP SUITE and in the website you can see that the file succesfully has been uploaded


     
     

    Now, finally we will use netcat listener and access a PHP reverse shell file in "Elf Strike's" website with uploads parameter and click on it php-reverse-shell..jpg.php file.







    Ans :- THM{MGU3Y2UyMGUwNjExYTY4NTAxOWJhMzhh}

     

     

    See you soon, with another task N day. So till then bookmark our website

     


    Disclaimer


    This was written for educational purpose and pentest only.
    The author will not be responsible for any damage ..!
    The author of this tool is not responsible for any misuse of the information.
    You will not misuse the information to gain unauthorized access.
    This information shall only be used to expand knowledge and not for causing  malicious or damaging attacks. Performing any hacks without written permission is illegal ..!


    All video’s and tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar subjects to anyone using digital information and computers. We believe that it is impossible to defend yourself from hackers without knowing how hacking is done. The tutorials and videos provided on www.hackingtruth.in is only for those who are interested to learn about Ethical Hacking, Security, Penetration Testing and malware analysis. Hacking tutorials is against misuse of the information and we strongly suggest against it. Please regard the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing every time this word is used.


    All tutorials and videos have been made using our own routers, servers, websites and other resources, they do not contain any illegal activity. We do not promote, encourage, support or excite any illegal activity or hacking without written permission in general. We want to raise security awareness and inform our readers on how to prevent themselves from being a victim of hackers. If you plan to use the information for illegal purposes, please leave this website now. We cannot be held responsible for any misuse of the given information.



    - Hacking Truth by Kumar Atul Jaiswal



    I hope you liked this post, then you should not forget to share this post at all.
    Thank you so much :-)


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