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Showing posts with label DNS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label DNS. Show all posts
  • DNS in full details


    DNS in full details


    What is DNS?

    DNS (Domain Name System) provides a simple way for us to communicate with devices on the internet without remembering complex numbers. Much like every house has a unique address for sending mail directly to it, every computer on the internet has its own unique address to communicate with it called an IP address. An IP address looks like the following, 4 sets of digits ranging from 0 - 255 separated by a period. When you want to visit a website, it's not exactly convenient to remember this complicated set of numbers, and that's where DNS can help. So instead of rememberin104.21.56.127, you can remember hackingtruth.org instead. DNS in full details






    hackingtruth.in bbc.co.uk







    Domain Hierarchy

    TLD (Top-Level Domain)

    A TLD is the most righthand part of a domain name. So, for example, the google.com TLD is .com. There are two types of TLD, gTLD (Generic Top Level) and ccTLD (Country Code Top Level Domain). Historically a gTLD was meant to tell the user the domain name's purpose; for example, a .com would be for commercial purposes, .org for an organisation, .edu for education and .gov for government. And a ccTLD was used for geographical purposes, for example, .ca for sites based in Canada, .co.uk for sites based in the United Kingdom and so on. Due to such demand, there is an influx of new gTLDs ranging from .online , .club , .website , .biz and so many more. For a full list of over 2000 TLDs click here.

    Also Read : How website works 



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    Second-Level Domain

    Taking google.com as an example, the .com part is the TLD, and google is the Second Level Domain. When registering a domain name, the second-level domain is limited to 63 characters + the TLD and can only use a-z 0-9 and hyphens (cannot start or end with hyphens or have consecutive hyphens).


    A subdomain sits on the left-hand side of the Second-Level Domain using a period to separate it; for example, in the name admin.google.com the admin part is the subdomain. A subdomain name has the same creation restrictions as a Second-Level Domain, being limited to 63 characters and can only use a-z 0-9 and hyphens (cannot start or end with hyphens or have consecutive hyphens). You can use multiple subdomains split with periods to create longer names, such as jupiter.servers.google.com. But the maximum length must be kept below 253 characters. There is no limit to the number of subdomains you can create for your domain name.



    Root Domain "."

    TLD .edu .org .gov .com

    Second Level Domain mit, hackingtruth, usa, google, nasa, army etc





    1) What is the maximum length of a subdomain?

    Ans :- 63

    2) Which of the following characters cannot be used in a subdomain ( 3 b _ - )?

    Ans :- _

    3) What is the maximum length of a domain name?

    Ans :- 253

    4) What type of TLD is .co.uk?

    Ans :- ccTLD



    Record Types

    DNS Record Types

    DNS isn't just for websites though, and multiple types of DNS record exist. We'll go over some of the most common ones that you're likely to come across.

    A Record

    These records resolve to IPv4 addresses, for example

    AAAA Record

    These records resolve to IPv6 addresses, for example 2606:4700:20::681a:be5

    CNAME Record

    These records resolve to another domain name, for example, google's online shop has the subdomain name store.google.com which returns a CNAME record shops.shopify.com. Another DNS request would then be made to shops.shopify.com to work out the IP address.

    MX Record

    These records resolve to the address of the servers that handle the email for the domain you are querying, for example an MX record response for google.com would look something like alt1.aspmx.l.google.com. These records also come with a priority flag. This tells the client in which order to try the servers, this is perfect for if the main server goes down and email needs to be sent to a backup server.

    TXT Record

    TXT records are free text fields where any text-based data can be stored. TXT records have multiple uses, but some common ones can be to list servers that have the authority to send an email on behalf of the domain (this can help in the battle against spam and spoofed email). They can also be used to verify ownership of the domain name when signing up for third party services.
    What type of record would be used to advise where to send email?

    1) What type of record would be used to advise where to send email?

    Ans :- MX

    2) What type of record handles IPv6 addresses?

    Ans :- AAAA



    Making A Request

    What happens when you make a DNS request

    1) When you request a domain name, your computer first checks its local cache to see if you've previously looked up the address recently; if not, a request to your Recursive DNS Server will be made.

    2) A Recursive DNS Server is usually provided by your ISP, but you can also choose your own. This server also has a local cache of recently looked up domain names. If a result is found locally, this is sent back to your computer, and your request ends here (this is common for popular and heavily requested services such as Google, Facebook, Twitter). If the request cannot be found locally, a journey begins to find the correct answer, starting with the internet's root DNS servers.

    The root servers act as the DNS backbone of the internet; their job is to redirect you to the correct Top Level Domain Server, depending on your request. If, for example, you request www.google.com, the root server will recognise the Top Level Domain of .com and refer you to the correct TLD server that deals with .com addresses.

    4) The TLD server holds records for where to find the authoritative server to answer the DNS request. The authoritative server is often also known as the nameserver for the domain. For example, the name server for google.com is kip.ns.cloudflare.com and uma.ns.cloudflare.com. You'll often find multiple nameservers for a domain name to act as a backup in case one goes down.

    5) An authoritative DNS server is the server that is responsible for storing the DNS records for a particular domain name and where any updates to your domain name DNS records would be made. Depending on the record type, the DNS record is then sent back to the Recursive DNS Server, where a local copy will be cached for future requests and then relayed back to the original client that made the request. DNS records all come with a TTL (Time To Live) value. This value is a number represented in seconds that the response should be saved for locally until you have to look it up again. Caching saves on having to make a DNS request every time you communicate with a server.



    1) What field specifies how long a DNS record should be cached for?

    Ans :- TTL

    2) What type of DNS Server is usually provided by your ISP?

    Ans :- recursive

    3) What type of server holds all the records for a domain?

    Ans :- authoritative





    This was written for educational purpose and pentest only.
    The author will not be responsible for any damage ..!
    The author of this tool is not responsible for any misuse of the information.
    You will not misuse the information to gain unauthorized access.
    This information shall only be used to expand knowledge and not for causing  malicious or damaging attacks. Performing any hacks without written permission is illegal ..!

    All video’s and tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar subjects to anyone using digital information and computers. We believe that it is impossible to defend yourself from hackers without knowing how hacking is done. The tutorials and videos provided on www.hackingtruth.in is only for those who are interested to learn about Ethical Hacking, Security, Penetration Testing and malware analysis. Hacking tutorials is against misuse of the information and we strongly suggest against it. Please regard the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing every time this word is used.

    All tutorials and videos have been made using our own routers, servers, websites and other resources, they do not contain any illegal activity. We do not promote, encourage, support or excite any illegal activity or hacking without written permission in general. We want to raise security awareness and inform our readers on how to prevent themselves from being a victim of hackers. If you plan to use the information for illegal purposes, please leave this website now. We cannot be held responsible for any misuse of the given information.

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