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Showing posts with label FTP Network Services. Show all posts
Showing posts with label FTP Network Services. Show all posts
  • Study About Networking Protocols and Packets with working process


    Study About Networking Protocols and Packets with working process



    In a computer network, machines can communicate with each other by means of protocols.

    This protocols ensures that computers can communicate with different hardware and software for their use. Largely different types of networks have these protocols on the Internet and each has its own purpose.

    Do you know what the primary goal of networking is? Let us know about networking packets The primary goal of networking is to exchange information between computer networks, this information is carried by packets.


    Packets are nothing but streams of bits used for data transmission over physical media as electric signals. Such media as a wire in a LAN ( local area network ) or the air in a WiFi network.

    These electricals signals are then interpreted as bits ( zeros and ones ) that make up the information. Every packets in every protocol has the following structure.

    Study About Networking Protocols and Packets with working process

    The header has a protocol specific structure. This ensures that the receiving host can properly interpret the payload and handle the entire communication.

    Study About Networking Protocols and Packets with working process

    The header has a protocol specific structure. This ensures that the receiving host can properly interpret the payload and handle the entire communication.

    Study About Networking Protocols and Packets with working process

    This payload is the actual information so it could be something like part of an email messages what the content of a file during download of any messages.

    Example The IP Header

    For example, the internet protocol header is atleast 160 bits (20 bytes) long, and it includes  information to interpret the content of the IP packets.

    Pic Credit Ine

    The first four bits identify the Internet protocol (IP) version. Today they can be used to represent IP version 4 or 6.

    Pic Credit Ine

    The 32 bits starting at position 96 represent the source address.

    Also read -  Master Local Area Network (LAN) Topologies In Just A Few Hours!

    The following tour bytes represent the destination address.

    Pic Credit Ine

    Using the information in header, the nodes involved in the communication can understand and use IP packets.

    Also read - Network Monitoring Tools HelpSystems Intermapper

    Protocol layers

    There are many protocols out there, each for a specific purpose.

    Purpose like -

    # Transmitting data.
    # identifying computers on a network.
    # Exchanging emails, files or performing VoIP calls.
    # Establishing a communication between the a server and a client.

    Instead of using specific examples, let's focusing on the features that a protocol provides-

    # Use the physical media to send packets.
    # identify hosts
    # Make an application ( email client, FTP, browsers, ....) work.
    # transport data between processes ( the server and the client programs ).

    Moreover, we can rewrite the list again as:

    # Application Layer
    Transport Layer
    # Network Layer
    # Physical Layer

    These layers work on top of one another and every layer has its own protocols.

    For example -

    A few examples of application layer protocols are the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Post Office Protocol (POP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and Domain Name System (DNS).
    The application layer does not need to know how to identify a process on a host, how to reach it and how to use the copper wire to establish a communication.

    It's just uses its underlying layers.

    The OSI Model

    The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model is a standardised model which we use to demonstrate the theory behind computer networking. In practice, it's actually the more compact TCP/IP model that real-world networking is based off; however the OSI model, in many ways, is easier to get an initial understanding from. The OSI Model: An Overview

    Study About Networking Protocols and Packets with working process

    There are many mnemonics floating around to help you learn the layers of the OSI model -- search around until you find one that you like.

    Let's briefly take a look at each of these in turn:

    slowly scroll the iframe below

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    Also read - The TCP IP Model in Networking


    So let's know how the protocols work with each other.  If each protocol has header and payload, then how can the protocol use these lower layers?

    The entire upper protocol packet ( header and payload ) is the payload of the lower one, this is called encapsulation.
    TCP is the real world implementation of a networking stack and is the protocol stack used on the internet.

    The TCP/IP model is, in many ways, very similar to the OSI model. It's a few years older, and serves as the basis for real-world networking. The TCP/IP model consists of four layers: Application, Transport, Internet and Network Interface. Between them, these cover the same range of functions as the seven layers of the OSI Model. The TCP IP Model in Networking

    Study About Networking Protocols and Packets with working process

    You would be justified in asking why we bother with the OSI model if it's not actually used for anything in the real-world. The answer to that question is quite simply that the OSI model (due to being less condensed and more rigid than the TCP/IP model) tends to be easier for learning the initial theory of networking.

    Study About Networking Protocols and Packets with working process

    For More Details Click on the below iframe slowly slowly -


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    All tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only and have been made using our own routers, servers, websites and other vulnerable free resources. we do not contain any illegal activity. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar subjects to anyone using digital information and computers. Hacking Truth is against misuse of the information and we strongly suggest against it. Please regard the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing every time this word is used. We do not promote, encourage, support or excite any illegal activity or hacking.

  • All about ftp network services

    Understanding FTP

    What is FTP?

    File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is, as the name suggests , a protocol used to allow remote transfer of files over a network. It uses a client-server model to do this, and- as we'll come on to later- relays commands and data in a very efficient way.
    All about ftp network services

    How does FTP work?

    A typical FTP session operates using two channels:

    •     a command (sometimes called the control) channel
    •     a data channel.

    As their names imply, the command channel is used for transmitting commands as well as replies to those commands, while the data channel is used for transferring data.

    FTP operates using a client-server protocol. The client initiates a connection with the server, the server validates whatever login credentials are provided and then opens the session.

    While the session is open, the client may execute FTP commands on the server.

    Active vs Passive

    The FTP server may support either Active or Passive connections, or both.

    In an Active FTP connection, the client opens a port and listens. The server is required to actively connect to it.
    In a Passive FTP connection, the server opens a port and listens (passively) and the client connects to it. 

    This separation of command information and data into separate channels is a way of being able to send commands to the server without having to wait for the current data transfer to finish. If both channels were interlinked, you could only enter commands in between data transfers, which wouldn't be efficient for either large file transfers, or slow internet connections.

    More Details:

    You can find more details on the technical function, and implementation of, FTP on the Internet Engineering Task Force website: https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc959.txt. The IETF is one of a number of standards agencies, who define and regulate internet standards.

    #1 What communications model does FTP use?

    Ans :- client-server

    #2 What's the standard FTP port?

    Ans :- 21

    #3 How many modes of FTP connection are there?  

    Ans :-  2

    Enumerating FTP

    Lets Get Started

    Before we begin, make sure to deploy the room and give it some time to boot. Please be aware, this can take up to five minutes so be patient!


    By now, I don't think I need to explain any further how enumeration is key when attacking network services and protocols. You should, by now, have enough experience with nmap to be able to port scan effectively. If you get stuck using any tool- you can always use "tool [-h / -help / --help]" to find out more about it's function and syntax. Equally, man pages are extremely useful for this purpose. They can be reached using "man [tool]".


    We're going to be exploiting an anonymous FTP login, to see what files we can access- and if they contain any information that might allow us to pop a shell on the system. This is a common pathway in CTF challenges, and mimics a real-life careless implementation of FTP servers.

    As we're going to be logging in to an FTP server, we're going to need to make sure therre is an ftp client installed on the system. There should be one installed by default on most Linux operating systems, such as Kali or Parrot OS. You can test if there is one by typing "ftp" into the console. If you're bought to a prompt that says: "ftp>" Then you have a working FTP client on your system. If not, it's a simple matter of using "sudo apt install ftp" to install one.
    Alternative Enumeration Methods

    It's worth noting  that some vulnerable versions of in.ftpd and some other FTP server variants return different responses to the "cwd" command for home directories which exist and those that don’t. This can be exploited because you can issue cwd commands before authentication, and if there's a home directory- there is more than likely a user account to go with it. While this bug is found mainly within legacy systems, it's worth knowing about, as a way to exploit FTP.

    This vulnerability is documented at: https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/20745

    Now we understand our toolbox, let's do this.                

    #1 Run an nmap scan of your choice.

    How many ports are open on the target machine?

    Ans :- 2

    #2 What port is ftp running on?

    Ans :- 21

    #3 What variant of FTP is running on it? 

    Ans :- vsftpd

    #4 Great, now we know what type of FTP server we're dealing with we can check to see if we are able to login anonymously to the FTP server. We can do this using by typing "ftp [IP]" into the console, and entering "anonymous", and no password when prompted.

    What is the name of the file in the anonymous FTP directory?

    Ans :- PUBLIC-NOTEICE.txt

    #5 What do we think a possible username
    could be?

    Ans :- mike

    #6 Great! Now we've got details about the FTP server and, crucially, a possible username. Let's see what we can do with that...

    Exploiting FTP

    Types of FTP Exploit

    Similarly to Telnet, when using FTP both the command and data channels are unencrypted. Any data sent over these channels can be intercepted and read.

    With data from FTP being sent in plaintext, if a man-in-the-middle attack took place an attacker could reveal anything sent through this protocol (such as passwords). An article written by JSCape demonstrates and explains this process using APR-Poisoning to trick a victim into sending sensitive information to an attacker, rather than a legitimate source.

    When looking at an FTP server from the position we find ourselves in for this machine, an avenue we can exploit is weak or default password configurations.

    Method Breakdown

    So, from our enumeration stage, we know:

        - There is an FTP server running on this machine

        - We have a possible username

    Using this information, let's try and bruteforce the password of the FTP Server.


    Hydra is a very fast online password cracking tool, which can perform rapid dictionary attacks against more than 50 Protocols, including Telnet, RDP, SSH, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, SMB, several databases and much more. Hydra comes by default on both Parrot and Kali, however if you need it, you can find the GitHub here.

    The syntax for the command we're going to use to find the passwords is this:
    "hydra -t 4 -l dale -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt -vV ftp"

    Let's break it down:

    SECTION             FUNCTION

    hydra                   Runs the hydra tool

    -t 4                    Number of parallel connections per target

    -l [user]               Points to the user who's account you're trying to compromise

    -P [path to dictionary] Points to the file containing the list of possible passwords

    -vV                     Sets verbose mode to very verbose, shows the login+pass combination for each attempt

    [machine IP]            The IP address of the target machine

    ftp / protocol          Sets the protocol

    Let's crack some passwords!

    #1 What is the password for the user "mike"?

    Ans :- password

    #2 Bingo! Now, let's connect to the FTP server as this user using "ftp [IP]" and entering the credentials when prompted

    #3 What is ftp.txt?

    Expanding Your Knowledge

    Further Learning

    There is no checklist of things to learn until you've officially learnt everything you can. There will always be things that surprise us all, especially in the sometimes abstract logical problems of capture the flag challenges. But, as with anything, practice makes perfect. We can all look back on the things we've learnt after completing something challenging and I hope you feel the same about this room.


    Here's some things that might be useful to read after completing this room, if it interests you:


    I hope you liked this post, then you should not forget to share this post at all.
    Thank you so much :-)



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